The Pug is a small dog, which characteristically has a flat snout and a robust body.
There are many theories of the origin of this breed, which seems to come from the East. It is native from China, where dogs with flat snouts were privileged. It arrived in Europe because of merchants, and so in 1500 it was cherished in Netherlands, being the patriotic symbol of royalty.
The Pug arrived in England when William III took over the throne. Until 1877, the breed was only seen as fawn-colored, but that year, a new black colored specimen was introduced.
It is also called “Carlino” in Spanish. The term Carlino was created in France because of a famous Italian actor of the XVIII century, Carlo Antonio Bertinazzi, whose pseudonym was Carlin. Its appearance during its interpretation of the character “Arlequin” in the French theatre reminded people of the Pug’s characteristically black eye mask.
It is a small and strong dog with a muscular and squared structure. Its head is big, round and wrinkled.
Its limbs are strong. The tail is rolled up, and in exhibitions it is appreciated the double curl. In respect of the coat can be fawn, apricot fawn, silver fawn, or black. The colors must be clearly defined, and so should be the black markings, there is a line extending from the occiput to the tail; and other markings in the mask, the ears, the moles on the cheekbones and in the thumb.
Pugs tend to appear playful and look forward an interaction. Thanks to its robust structure, it can tolerate playing with children and adults. If they are trained well and adequately socialized, they do not become aggressive animals.
They are not intimidated by bigger dogs, which could make them getting in trouble. However, they may be cautious with strangers, and announce the presence of them with its barks. Although they cannot be guardian dogs because of their size, they are good Watchdogs.
They tend to be stubborn, and do not come when they are called, but when they want. Despite that, these dogs do not enjoy being away from their owners and prefer their company than being with other dogs.
Its eyes have a cheerful and bulging appearance, and they are more exposed to the brush with plants and objects than other dogs are. Because of this, it is recommended to take them to the vet immediately if they have any lesion, and to clean their eyes once a week with wet cotton (with boiled water or cold tea) to remove dirt and secretions too. It is suggested to repeat this method to clean the secretions and dirt between the head wrinkles. It is not necessary to apply soaps, creams or other substance. The creases must be dry, because if not, it may cause irritation.
It is also recommended to give special attention to the ears, because as they have tailing ears, the air does not circulate there and maintains the dampness, which may cause ear infections. To prevent that situation, it is enough to clean the ears once a week with wet gauze, and then drying them to avoid irritation.
This do is not recommended to allergic or asthmatic people, because of their hair loose. They have a characteristically acrid smell, which may bother some people, but it can be reduced with a frequent bath.
Pugs do not tolerate high temperatures. Because of their flat snout, some respiratory problems may be caused. They usually endure dyspnea; and so ocular problems, because their bulging eyes are specially exposed to scratches or little injuries when they sniff with their snout.
1% Of the puppies may present a neurological disease known as Pug dog encephalitis (PDE). This disease is lethal and has no cure. For this reason, these dogs should not reproduce before they are two years, with the objective of not transmitting this gene to their descendants. After the first year or living, it is less possible that the Pug may present this illness.
You can download the FCI (International Cinological Federation) standard at the following link: http://www.fci.be/Nomenclature/Standards/253g09-en.pdf