The Border Collie is recognized for its intelligence and its ability to learn; it is tireless and obedient. It is extremely agile, being able to do implausible things, such as jumping to a high place without having to take impulse.
The Border Collie was originally used as a working dog, mainly as a sheepdog, specializing in herding and driving herds. The selection of the Border Collie breed was mainly based on psychical characteristics than morphological. This resulted in the lack of a standard of morphological characteristics and therefore was the last of the officially recognized sheepdogs.
The name of this breed indicates in part its origin (border-border). The border Collie was developed in the border area between Scotland and England, in order to herd during the days on the hardest fields.
It is speculated that the Border Collie was introduced in the 5th century BC in Great Britain by the Celtic tribes that traveled all over Europe. Then these groups moved to the Scottish area where, in their highlands, arose the breed of the Highlands Collie, and this gave rise, in the area between Scotland and England, the shepherds, “the useful dog of the border.”
It is a medium-sized dog with a proportional body, which can weigh between 16 and 23 kg. It has a double coat that supports different colors, like black and white, white and grey, merle Blue, Australian red, Tricolor black, merle tricolor, chocolate brown, chocolate tricolor, merle red, lilac sable and white, seal tricolor merle, and even completely black, although they are difficult to find. It is considered undesirable the mostly white or completely white cats.
It has a water resistant coat which can be dense and rough, or dense and soft. The body has an athletic appearance, low chest, strong and agile. The height varies between 46.5 and 56 cm for males and between 46 and 53 cm in females. The tail is moderately long, somewhat curved, hairy, usually with a tuft of white hair at the end of it.
The border Collie is hardworking, loyal, lively and very intelligent. Its ability to learn is very high and it shows very submissive with his owner. It is very discreet with strangers but it is not too given to guard or to defense. It adapts very well to a family life, either with humans or with other pets because of being very affectionate and docile.
Its look is one of its main characteristics: while working, it never leaves its leader, and has an unusual concentration capacity, better than in the rest of breeds of dogs. It is full of joy when it works, and enjoys doing it. But, above all, it has a great agility and owns an extreme intelligence, both functional and obedient. Its noticeable herding instinct, combined with its tenacity and resistance, places it among the most required breeds to gather, control and lead the herds, resulting in the best sheepdog breed existing.
The Border Collie’s long coat needs to be brushed regularly, but not in excess as it is a working dog. The American Kennel Club even penalizes those who have excessively cared coats in the exhibits.
As it is a shepherding dog needs a great of daily physical activity. They are dogs which require a lot of daily physical exercise; if they live locked up and without going for a walk more than an hour and a half a day (ideally distributed in more than one walk) they may become neurotic.
The Border Collie is a generally healthy breed but it can suffer from eye diseases or hip dysplasia, which is a malformation on the hip. Epilepsy and allergies resulting from skin problems also affect this breed.
In males, dissecting osteochondritis, a cartilage anomaly, is common.
You can download the FCI (International Cinological Federation) standard at the following link: http://www.fci.be/Nomenclature/Standards/297g01-en.pdf